The Afghan – Russia, diplomatic relations, from historical point of view seems from the period of Ahmad Shah Baba and Amir Sher Ali Khan, but at the level of agreement and understanding letters, this period begins with the period of Amanullah Khan.
Afghan- Russia relations have not remained merely ceremonial and symbolic; they have been able actively in relation with each other’s. Start from the Mohammad Zahir Shah and Mohammad Dawood Khan’s till now. In addition to the developmental and influential engagement of development projects in Afghanistan, including projects, educational scholarships and cultural partnerships, and in recent times, in the last half decade through the helping of special Khalq parties and subsequent jihadist organizations, So the Russia remained one of the most active actor.
Afghan- Russia relations; Background of a century
When King Amanullah Khan won the war of independence from England and had declared complete independence in internal and external policies and affairs, Russia was one the first countries recognized the new independent kingdom of Amanullah Khan, and then both countries was the first to signed treaty in the cooperation between the two countries despite the accepted independence, until then was the military agreement signing Soviet union to military aid to Afghanistan due to this agreement number of Afghan students went to Russia for study in field of Air force. Meanwhile, the exchange of letters between linen and ghazi Amanullah khan was also done.
These relations have been renewed again after signing the treaty with Mohammad Nadir Khan’s after the period of Ghazi Amanullah Khan. In the period of Mohammad Zahir Shah, other treaties were followed by the previous agreement signed with the Soviet Union, at this stage master-plan was developed for the development of Afghanistan, the first five-year master plan was chaired by Mohammad Daud Khan. The plan was until 1956-1961; the Soviet scientist for this plan came to Kabul and planned a master plan for Afghanistan in ministry of plans. The new master plan was followed by the second master plan, the third master plan and again the fourth master plan, but successful master plans were the first two master plans, which led to the tens of projects are completed and inaugurated.
As Mohammad Dawood Khan had support of parties particularly the Democratic (Parcham) party with himself, and also geographical changes were there in the area, in which the United States had more confidence on Pakistan compare to Afghanistan; therefore Afghanistan had a good relations with Russia, of course it does not mean that they haven’t tried to balance the relations with the Soviets Union, Afghanistan tried to get attention of US for its military and economic developments but they were not in position to get the extent of such attention , but then the US supported couple of projects in Afghanistan, in these large projects such as Kandahar Airport , Helmand’s development programs, the Kajaki dam and so on.
Soviet Union helped Afghanistan largely compare to the US and in general the West, the Soviet Union have supported Afghanistan in all aspects take it from economics to the social fields. the main feature of Soviet aid it was, that they were here implemented infrastructural projects, the projects is so far useful for Afghanistan, even the US with huge amount of Dollars in the past eighteen years failed to implement such useful projects in Afghanistan. Whatever projects are implemented by the US that is just a temporary projects and for a short period of time.
These Infrastructure projects and also long term loans to Afghanistan from the Soviet Union. Was something to take Afghanistan to the industrial Afghanistan, in as a poor and non-industrial Afghanistan there was no feudal and no workers, for all these projects there was a need of labor force that the workplace was formed in at least one of these projects, and in the workforce of Soviet Union, the associations again reversed the revolutionary slogan in the philosophy of its Marxism.
Several examples of Soviet Union infrastructure projects in Afghanistan are as follows:
The Kabul and Baghlan Silo, the Jangluck factory of car, Darunta and Naghlo dams, Nangarhar canals, the oranage farms in Nangarhar , Kabul Pulikhomri Highway, Kandahar, Herat and Torghandai Highway, Salang Tunnel, Kabul, Bagram, Shindand, Kandahar and Kunduz airports, Kabul Makrouan, Kabul’s 400 bed hospital, various factories such as Mazar-e-Sharif chemical factory and Kabul-based home manufacturing factory, in the north’s gas and oil exploration, Kabul Polytechnic University and dozens of other projects.
After the coup of People Democratic Party of Afghanistan, the treaties was signed, but obviously independent of the traditional left to accommodate the views of Democratic Soviet government nepotism. In this phase, relations between the Democratic Government and the Soviet authorities were tremendous and they were openly joint meetings, telephonic and good relations with each other’s, These relations have been ranked on the basis of ideological and marketable partners instead of national sovereignty.
Diplomatic century; new stage of engagements
The 27th of May 1919 is the first day of diplomatic relations in the history of the Russian Empire, and Afghanistan, This relation became into existence by Ghazi Amanullah Khan and a newly formed Soviet Union, and then later this connection was held on different occasions. More tightened. From 1919 to 2019 it’s a century, and at this time in Afghanistan and the Soviet Union out of the two rival countries both high level ranging between deep experience possible Soviet invasion.
When arriving on May 27, 2019, the former Russian Union- based Russians used to use this day as an active diplomacy in place of traditional remedies in the Afghanistan context, whether Russia or other countries with similar maternal diplomats have a relationship with friends; have they ever considered special arrangements in this day? But it is a good development, Russian after the rule of Mohammad Daud khan interfere directly and indirectly in the civil war of Afghanistan, today as they are trying for peace in Afghanistan that is the shared benefits of Afghanistan And Russia in the peace of Afghanistan.
In Afghanistan in the context of Russia’s relations with the parties, this transformation also new that Russia dialogue and relations with the Taliban by breaking the first barrier of specific regulatory relations in Afghanistan and relations in factional respectively and also on ethnically diverse.
If Russia wants from the bottom of the heart, that peace must proliferate in Afghanistan it’s necessary, that such dialogue environment must be created where Taliban, Afghan government and various influential political-social sides must participates in a serious talk. That all Afghan sides and Russia with this forum are also pushing out the withdrawal of foreign troops; it is a high level of national interest in Afghanistan, no Afghan want foreigners to be in the country. For the mission of fight, this is the biggest contribution to Afghanistan’s independence and the Afghans have always been mocking in this country.
An experiment in case of jihadist line it is, that they have given more focus to war, they do not have the necessary preparation and exercise of political, economic and social engagement, so they always enter from the angle of war, it is a fact that the war angle has always been dominated by various factors, Taliban must at this stage don’t ignore the experience of former mujahideen factions in the peace case, the right time for peace may not be available, And there is no power in war and peace, Former jihadist organizations, who would like to have peace in their period standards of peace during the need of peace but also came to the stage that they did not have all their facilities and days in their country. As a matter of the case, Taliban are a major player of the case today, they need to understand value of peace.
The Taliban should not see only their views in the negotiation process of peace, the Afghan issue is a national issue, and there is a lot of small groups, if we ignore it that will lead to the next disaster in the country. That will look good with the Taliban if they don’t take it to their own. If the Taliban don’t talk with the government. In this case, only the withdrawal of foreign forces would never allow to end the war, for foreigners it is very easy and affordable, that they do not have their casualties here in Afghanistan, but their war will continue here and they can afford such a cheap war.
If Russia wants to do a positive role in Afghanistan and start good relations, then Russia should prove it in peace case, since this time Russia should take a generous part in the reconstruction of Afghanistan, So this is how they will close the chapter of war, where they had been engaged one million Soviet soldiers in a periodic way, Russia would prove its friendship, in the wake of new Afghanistan, Russia should Understand that sustainable peace and security are impossible without economic development and stability and when such stability is not in Afghanistan, Then the war will never end in Afghanistan.
For Russia’s developmental cooperation in Afghanistan it is also necessary that the Afghan government have to provide conditions for the development and implementation of Russia’s assistance. At least the Afghan government had to follow the promises of Russia , since they promised in 1392 to integrate and rebuild the uncompleted projects of the Soviet Union, Afghan government need to follow these steps between the US and the regional powers, and it depends on the leadership of the Afghan government how can the US and NATO presence change to opportunity to replace Russia for promoting Russia’s aid ?