By: Center for Strategic & Regional Studies

Note: Click here for the PDF file of this analysis.


In this issue:

  • The Forced Deportation Of Afghan Immigrants And The Policy Of The Islamic Emirate In Connection With It
  • The Main Factors Of Afghan Migration Abroad
  • Why Are Afghan Immigrants Being Deported?
  • The Current Situation Of Afghan Immigrants In Neighboring Countries
  • The Situation Of Immigrants After Returning To Afghanistan
  • The Policy Of The Islamic Emirate Towards Immigrants
  • Conclusion
  • Suggestions
  • Reference
  • _____________________________________________________________


For several decades, Afghans have been considered one of the most vulnerable groups in terms of migration or leaving their homeland. Although migration has become a culture in the world to some extent, due to the strategic location and difficult routes of Afghan immigrants to other countries, the policy of the destination countries towards Afghan immigrants, as well as the factors of Afghan migration to other countries, are different from other migrations. And it is sadder than the immigrants of other countries in the world. On the other hand, for several decades in Afghanistan, the systems in any form have not been able to implement their policy towards immigrants, due to the lack of implementation of a clear policy, there have been many causes of migration in this country. On the other hand, for many years, there has not been a ruling government in Afghanistan that has been able to benefit from the mutual relations and diplomatic honesty of the neighboring countries. Therefore, the general lack of understanding between the governments in Afghanistan and the neighboring countries has caused Afghan immigrants to be treated incorrectly or against the principles and rules of human rights.

However, with the re-emergence of the Islamic Emirate in Afghanistan, the politicians of the Islamic Emirate have adopted a balanced foreign policy to interact with neighboring countries, the region, and the world, [1]but until now, the destination countries, especially the neighboring countries, did not stop harassing and forcing Afghan immigrants. As the forced deportation of thousands of Afghan immigrants from Pakistan and the inappropriate behavior of the ruling system in that country towards the immigrants has been in the headlines of the news and media, it has resulted in various national and international reactions.

What were the main reasons for the migration of Afghans abroad, why harassed Afghan migrants are deported from their destination countries, especially neighboring countries, what is the current situation of the migrants and recently what is the policy of the Islamic Emirate towards the migrants? It is one of the most important questions that will be answered in this article.

The main factors of Afghan migration abroad

Undoubtedly, most of the migrations in today’s world take place in order to determine one’s destiny, create a better life, and create suitable working and educational conditions. But in Afghanistan, just as the return of its immigrants is often forced by the destination countries, so far most of the migrations from this country have also been forced in in one way or another.  Anyway, here we will refer to some of the most important factors of migration that have taken place in this country during the last few decades:

  1. War and insecurity:War and insecurity are considered to be the main factors in the migration of Afghans out of their country. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the last seventieth decade of the 20th century, Afghanistan has always been a conflict of war and internal insecurity with the interventions of foreign countries. During these wars, several million people were forced to leave their homeland and started to migrate. Although after the establishment of the Islamic Emirate on 14 August 2021 AH, the war and conflicts in the country were mostly ended, but still some people immigrated under the pretext of insecurity.
  2. Poor economic situation: However, the Islamic Emirate has generally adopted an economy-oriented foreign policy, [2] and for this reason, efforts are being made to improve the country’s economic situation by starting large national and regional projects. However, poverty and unemployment are among the most common problems of the people of Afghanistan and have caused the people of this country to migrate to meet their economic needs. However, poverty and unemployment have always been mixed with people’s lives in this country for several decades and forced them to migrate.
  3. Educational Conditions:In fact, migration to acquire knowledge, education, and capacity building is one of the common factors among the residents of the countries, the people of Afghanistan will not be exempt from this in some way. After the Islamic Emirate gained power in Afghanistan, it closed the doors of universities and schools from the sixth grade to girls, as a result, a large segment of the society was deprived of education. However, the Islamic Emirate informs about the process of how to educate girls and open the door of education for them shortly. However, this caused some families to migrate abroad to educate their daughters, and in connection with this issue, hundreds of university professors and male students also migrated abroad because of discouragement.
  4. Personal Interest: Today, in the contemporary world, nations are always interested in the advancement of technology and other areas of life, similar to the advanced nations, to participate in political campaigns and civil activities to somehow play a role in determining the fate of themselves, their relatives and their society. Therefore, some people who have such desires migrate to get more opportunities.

Why are Afghan immigrants being deported?

As for why Afghan immigrants are expelled from their destination countries, it would be better to examine this problem in terms of two important and general factors:

1- Internal factors: Many internal factors cause Afghan immigrants to be expelled from their destination countries, some of the factors are as follows:

– poor economic situation; Since the people of Afghanistan suffer from an unfavorable economic situation, in most cases they are forced to immigrate abroad for work illegally, especially to neighboring countries, and this is one of the main reasons for their early and sometimes late expulsion from the country. It is considered towards the destination countries.

– Slowness in the passport distribution process; unfortunately, during the last two years, the process of issuing passports to the public has not been normal. For example, sometimes, if someone wants to apply for a passport, she/he has to wait at least one year or six months until their name is on the list to benefit from this civil right. Therefore, many immigrants immigrate illegally, which in itself causes them to be deported.

– Political instability; during the last few decades, Afghanistan has faced with continuing political instability. Also, after more than two years, the Islamic Emirate is running the country as a caretaker system. Therefore, the neighboring countries and the region are not sure about the sustainability of the current and future situation of Afghanistan, and they do not compare their interactions with Afghan immigrants to any of the international standards or values ​​of human rights and good neighborliness.

2- External factors: Also, there are many external factors in mistreating Afghan immigrants, the most important of them are as follows:

– The bad security situation of the destination country; lately, the bad security situation of destination countries, especially neighboring countries, has become one of the most important reasons for the expulsion of Afghan immigrants from these countries. For example, the country of Pakistan has witnessed many insecurities in the last two years and officials of the Pakistani government claim that Afghan citizens are involved in the insecurity of that country. As the former interior minister of Pakistan, Sarfraz Bugti stated in a press conference that 14 of the 24 attacks in Pakistan were carried out by Afghan citizens. [3]On the other hand, the Department of Combating Terrorism in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan has accused more than 90 Afghan citizens of being involved in terrorist attacks in the past two years in this country. [4] While the policy of the Islamic Emirate towards the neighboring countries is clear, it does not interfere in the affairs of other countries and they should take care of their affairs.

Also, many times the Iranian government has deported dozens of Afghan immigrants on the charge of participating in public protests and being involved in riots in this country. [5]Therefore, in addition to the numerous clashes between Afghan and Iranian border guards, as well as some attacks on Iranian checkpoints in the border provinces of Iran and Afghanistan by the opposition factions of the Iranian government, it cannot be considered unrelated to the forced deportation of 328,000 Afghan refugees from Iran[6].

– Unfortunately economic situation; undoubtedly, the countries that adopted the policy of deportation towards Afghan immigrants do not have a suitable economic situation, although the presence of immigrants and the systematic camps of immigrants in these countries can attract international cooperation to support immigrants to these countries. But the unprecedented decline in the domestic currency of these countries, such as Pakistan, in which in August of this year, the Pakistani rupee witnessed the sharpest drop in value against the US dollar since the 23 of October in 1998, has caused this country to be in a dire economic situation. [7]However, according to recent reports, the Pakistani media reported the complaints of employers about the lack of professional workers compared to the expulsion of Afghan workers after the expulsion of Afghan immigrants from this country. However, the caretaker government of Pakistan has taken advantage of the Afghan immigrants under the pretext of the poor economic situation in this country and has pushed their deportation as an option to put pressure on the face of the world and the Afghan government.

Also, some Iranians believe that the presence of immigrants in their country has reduced their job opportunities and accuses them of playing a role in the unfortunate economic situation in their country. lack of attention of human rights organizations; It should be noted that in this context, international organizations and human rights defenders, especially the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, have paid little attention to the forced deportation of migrants and the inappropriate behavior of destination countries towards Afghan migrants, and what serious practical measures are taken towards Afghan migrants. Wealthy and without connection to foreign institutions and governments; has not been done.

The current situation of Afghan immigrants in neighboring countries

The situation of Afghan immigrants abroad can be divided into two categories, one is that they enter the destination countries with legal documents, and second, those who enter the country illegally. Undoubtedly, according to our information, the majority of those who enter the destination countries legally cannot renew their legal presence documents after three or six months due to economic problems. In contrast, most Afghan immigrants include those who enter the country illegally, which, of course, constitutes the most vulnerable class of immigrants. Therefore, in general, it can be said that all immigrants who have immigrated illegally or whose legal stay period has ended. They always live in fear and whenever the destination countries see it necessary, they attack them or harass them and imprison them. Or they are forcibly deported after being tortured and insulted by their country again, a clear example of which is the forced deportation of Afghan immigrants by neighboring countries, especially Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey, which has been almost unprecedented this year. The government of Pakistan announced in a plan that all refugees without legal documents, whose number is estimated at 1.73 million people, were ordered them to leave this country until November of this year, [8] which according to recent reports their stay has been extended until February 29 of the New Year. According to the report of the Consul General of the Islamic Emirate in Karachi, Pakistan, during one week, more than 800 Afghan migrants have been arrested. [9]Also, the representatives of the Islamic Emirate at the Afghan Embassy in Islamabad confirmed the arrest of those who have legal documents. They added that several Afghan immigrants were killed by the Pakistani police after being mysteriously arrested and some were harassed. However, hundreds of migrants enter Afghanistan from Pakistan through the borders every day, but the number of migrants expelled by the interim government of Pakistan in the last two months has been reported to be around 500,000. [10]

Also, Afghan refugees is the largest group of immigrants living in the Islamic Republic of Iran. According to the UN report, the number of Afghan immigrants in this country reaches 4.5 million, But Iranian government officials have said that the number of Afghan immigrants in this country is between 5 and 6 million. However, in the first half of 2023, about 710,000 cases of departure from Iran to Afghanistan have been recorded, among which about 310,000 were forced deportations and 400,000 were voluntary returns. It should not be said that Afghan immigrants in Iran are not saved from physical and mental harassment and torture, [11]and this year the media has reported dozens of cases of harassment of Afghan immigrants in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

In the first three months of 2023, Turkey forcibly deported about 3,000 Afghan refugees. Before this, the number of immigrants deported from Turkey in 2022 reached 55 thousand people, according to the reports of the domestic media of Afghanistan, the immigrants deported from Turkey complained about being beaten and arrested by the police of this country. Before this, the number of immigrants deported from Turkey in 2022 reached 55 thousand people, according to the reports of the domestic media of Afghanistan, the immigrants deported from Turkey complained about being beaten and arrested by the police of this country.

The situation of immigrants after returning to Afghanistan

Some factors of migration may have remained in Afghanistan until now. However, the unfortunate and humiliating situation of Afghan immigrants abroad and the wrong and inappropriate behavior of the destination countries towards Afghan immigrants cannot be compared to being or returning to the country.

It should be noted that the review and entry of the status of all Afghan immigrants who returned to the country from the destination countries in the last two years, according to the figures provided by the Ministry of Immigrant Affairs, from the beginning of the Islamic Emirate to power until the 24th of the current solar year 2 million and 654446 refugees returned, [12]maybe it is possible in wider research. But about some aspects of the life of the refugees who returned from Pakistan during the last two months, it can be said like this. As mentioned above, in the last two months, more than half a million migrants have been forcibly shamefully returned from Pakistan, some of them had been living there for more than forty years. But they have been returned without any facilities or extremely limited facilities with children and families, according to the reports, in the first ten or fifteen days of deportation of migrants in a group form, the migrants had an unfortunate situation at the Durand border. It is said that even children were missing from their families and the immigrants did not have access to any basic facilities. [13]But now due to the hard work and efforts of the Islamic Emirate, domestic and foreign charities and institutions, the refugees in the camps are living in quite a normal situation. Although, so far, efforts have been made to fulfill some of the needs of the immigrants, such as tents, blankets, clothes, and edibles in cooked or raw food items. But considering that the migrants have a cold winter ahead, according to the statements of the eyewitnesses, the need for more serious cooperation is felt, because it is difficult for the migrants to live without heaters, wood, and other means of heating with only winter clothes and blankets under the tent. [14] Spend the winter On the other hand, those immigrants who spent more than ten years with their families outside the country, of them have nowhere to go, so the government of the Islamic Emirate needs to attract cooperation from foreign and domestic institutions to think of a home and a suitable place to live for them. At the end of this topic, we come to the conclusion that the situation of the immigrants returning from abroad in Afghanistan may face some challenges at the beginning, but at least it can be said that they will return to their original home, and also the Islamic Emirate and charitable and aid organizations will make their final effort to facilitate their life and provide them any possible support. .

The policy of the Islamic Emirate towards immigrants

The Islamic Emirate’s policy towards Afghan immigrants has been kind and compassionate, since the beginning of its rule until now, the authorities have always asked its citizens not to leave the country. They also asked the Afghans living abroad to return to the country.[15] On the other hand, the Islamic Emirate has directed the Ministry of Industry and Trade and other relevant ministries and departments to provide the necessary facilities for returning traders, investors, and industrialists. On the other hand, the officials of the Islamic Emirate, during their trips to neighboring countries, talked with the authorities of those countries about the situation of the immigrants, and while making sure that the Afghan immigrants were not involved in the problems and instability of the neighboring countries, they asked for their proper treatment of the Afghan immigrants.

However, despite the repeated requests of the Islamic Emirate regarding their proper treatment of Afghan immigrants, the neighboring countries started forcibly expelling and persecuting Afghan immigrants. Recently, the government of Pakistan confiscated all the properties of Afghan immigrants, some of whom had been living in Pakistan for 40 years or more, and did not allow them to transfer currency worth more than 50,000 Afghanis. However, after the seizure of power by the Islamic Emirate in Afghanistan, the process of expelling Afghan immigrants from countries, especially neighboring countries, has intensified. [16]Meanwhile, the deportation, beating, and arrest of Afghan immigrants this year can be considered a low record in the history of the country and the interaction with Afghan immigrants.

Although Afghanistan is now facing many problems and the return of immigrants to the country is rare, the Islamic Emirate has not spared any effort to cooperate with the emigrants deported from neighboring countries, especially Pakistan. According to the reports that we obtained, the Islamic Emirate and charitable institutions have helped the refugees in various dimensions, including food, clothing, etc. Also, to meet the needs of the immigrants, committees have been established in various matters, such as a committee for finding jobs for immigrants and the disabled, providing services to them, and other necessities. Undoubtedly, this work is evaluated positively towards the immigrants, and the Islamic Emirate’s acceptance and maturity towards the immigrants deported from neighboring countries, especially from Pakistan, can be considered an unprecedented act.


The most important consideration for cooperation with immigrants or their return to the country is to remove the factors of migration in a country. However, in Afghanistan, every government that has been in rule has tried to adopt a soft policy towards the immigrants, but they have often failed to eliminate the factors of migration and provide the grounds for the return of the citizens of this country. However, according to the above cases, the Islamic Emirate seems to be serious in enforcing its policy towards the affairs of immigrants. Therefore, it is hoped that the Islamic Emirate, by continuing this policy and removing all factors of migration in the country, will prepare the ground for the return of migrants.


Considering the above problems, to prevent a humanitarian disaster and save Afghans from the current critical situation, we present the following suggestions at both external and internal levels:


  1. Afghan immigrants should not be used as a tool of political pressure by the destination countries under any circumstances due to the strained bilateral political relations between Afghanistan and neighboring countries.
  2. However, war and insecurity, which are considered to be the main factors behind the migration of Afghans abroad, are currently stopped and improving, But many other problems such as poverty and unemployment cause Afghans to migrate abroad. Therefore, the neighboring countries must review their policies regarding the longer acceptance of Afghan immigrants.
  3. The forced deportation of Afghan immigrants, their harassment, and detention by neighboring countries jeopardize the good neighborly relations between the countries and Afghanistan, intensify the sense of pessimism among the nations, and as a result, affect the measured diplomatic relations.
  4. Neighboring countries should not be strict in granting immigration cards to immigrants. In some countries like Pakistan, after spending forty years in that country, some immigrants faced the wrong and shameful behavior of the police of this country and were forcibly deported.
  5. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) must play their role with practical measures regarding the forced deportation and persecution of Afghan immigrants in the destination countries.


  1. The government of Afghanistan should try to create opportunities for the return of Afghan refugees who are living abroad so that they can return to the country and work for the development of the country and peace.
  2. The officials of the Islamic Emirate should try to attract national and international cooperation in the country in order to reach the affairs of the immigrants and to implement the policy of the Emirate in connection with the affairs of the immigrants so that all the needs of the immigrants are met.
  3. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan should try to create more coordination between charitable institutions and aid organizations so that all the problems of immigrants throughout the country can be addressed.
  4. The Islamic Emirate must create more suitable opportunities for charitable institutions and other institutions that have aid activities so that they can also try to attract more national and international aid in the affairs of immigrants.
  5. The Afghan government is also responsible for facilitating and speeding up the process of legal immigration, especially the process of issuing passports for Afghans who want to emigrate. End


[1]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1402), Journal of Strategic Studies, serial number: 58, p. 8, Kabul, Afghanistan.

[2] . Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1402), Journal of Strategic Studies, serial number: 58, p. 10, Kabul, Afghanistan.

[3] Interior Minister of Pakistan; the video:

[4] . Tolo News: Rejecting the claim of the Department of Combat… 3 New 1402 AH; link:

[5] . Radio Azadi: Iran has dozens of Afghan refugees… 14 Aqrab 1402 AH; link:

[6] . :DW Report: Iran in 10 days…, 6 Aqrab 1402 AH; link:

[7] . BBC: Why Pakistan decided the refugees…, 9 Aqrab 1402 AH; link:

[8] . :Pars Today (1402), United Nations; the situation in Afghanistan; link:

[9] Tolo News: (1402), the arrest of more than…; link:

[10] . Pajhwok: World Migrants Day; Pakistan on…, 28 Scorpio 2024 AH; link:,%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B2%20%D8%AC%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C%20%D9%85%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%AC%D8%B1%DB%8C%D9%86%D8%9B%20%D9%BE%D8%A7%DA%A9%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%A7%D9%86%20%D8%AF%D8%B1%20%D8%AF%D9%88%20%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%87%20%DA%AF%D8%B0%D8%B4%D8%AA%D9%87%20%D8%A8%DB%8C%D8%B4%20%D8%A7%D8%B2,%D8%B1%D8%A7%20%D8%AC%D8%D8%AC%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%8B%20%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AC%20%D8%B4%D8%AF%D9%87%20%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AF.

[11] Rozgar Salimi, the latest immigration statistics from Afghanistan to Iran, 29 Sanblah 1402 AH; link:

[12] . Ministry of Immigrant Affairs, statistics of returnees; link:

[13] . Hazrat Nabi Nabizadeh, head of the Najm charity organization in Nangarhar province and the refugee camp deported from Pakistan.

[14] . Abdul Fattah Javad, general manager of Ehsas charity organization, one of the eyewitnesses of the situation of immigrants.

[15] . Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan; Declaration of the Islamic Emirate regarding…, 9 Aqrab, 1402 AH, Sh, link:

[16] . Tabnak: Destruction of the houses of Afghan immigrants, 8 Qos of 1402 AH; link:

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