U.S. FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS THE ISLAMIC EMIRATE

There are three ways for the United States to engage with the Islamic Emirate:

Complete Isolation: Isolate the Islamic Emirate entirely and impose additional severe restrictions until they meet the U.S. demands.

Official Recognition: Recognize the Islamic Emirate officially and establish formal diplomatic relations with it.

Engagement without Recognition: Neither isolate it completely nor officially recognize it, but rather engage with it without formal recognition until the Islamic Emirate makes changes in its domestic policies.

So far, the United States has chosen the third path.

The specific objectives of U.S. foreign policy towards the Islamic Emirate include combating terrorism, fighting for the education and employment rights of girls, preventing drug trafficking, providing aid to prevent a humanitarian crisis, and evacuating U.S. allies from Afghanistan, and applying restrictions and pressure to make the Islamic Emirate meet its demands.

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An assessment of the legal arguments in the “Revisiting The Durand Line: Historical and Legal Perspectives”

The Durand Agreement has created a conflict between Pakistan and Afghanistan, and researchers and politicians from both sides argue in favor of their country, Pakistan gives reasons to approve the Durand Agreement and accept this border as an official border. Afghan researchers give reasons for not accepting it.

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POWER STRUGGLES IN PAKISTAN’S ELECTIONS AND POSSIBLE FUTURE SCENARIOS IN AFGHANISTAN

Based on the above, we conclude that if the future government of Pakistan is formed by the election team of the Muslim League Nawaz in coalition with the Pakistan People’s Party, due to the dissatisfaction of the absolute majority of Pakistan citizens (who identified themselves as supporters of Imran Khan in the elections), The intensification of the attacks from TTP and finally the freedom-loving and independence-seeking approach of the Afghans will cause the Pakistani authorities to accuse the Afghan government which will negatively impact the relationship between the Islamic Emirate and Pakistan affecting Afghanistan’s economy due to the creation of friction in the trade route to South Asia and even China from Pakistan, as well as creating political pressure that can have an unpleasant future for the Islamic Emirate

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Major Political Events in 2023 and Their Impacts on the International Order

2023 The year was the most important year of political, security, and economic problems and changes at the international level. In this year, the war between Ukraine and Russia intensified, the oppression of the oppressed people of Palestine reached its last limit, and Azerbaijan received Nagorno-Karabakh. The foreign policy of the United States of America regarding the Middle East has changed, and the inferiority, slavery, and helplessness of the Arab countries have been revealed. The position of the United States of America has been badly damaged at the international level due to the violation of human rights and its support for Israel. Economic developments took place in Afghanistan under the leadership of the Islamic Emirate, but the issue of girls’ education remained ambiguous. The region of the Islamic Emirate strengthened its relations, but its relations with Pakistan deteriorated a little on some issues, especially on forced migrants. The equations of the Middle East have changed a bit and all these events have made it easy to take steps towards the change of the international order and it is not far that the domination of the United States of America will end.

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THE FORCED DEPORTATION OF AFGHAN IMMIGRANTS AND THE POLICY OF THE ISLAMIC EMIRATE IN CONNECTION WITH IT

The most important consideration for cooperation with immigrants or their return to the country is to remove the factors of migration in a country. However, in Afghanistan, every government that has been in rule has tried to adopt a soft policy towards the immigrants, but they have often failed to eliminate the factors of migration and provide the grounds for the return of the citizens of this country.

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The Islamic Emirate’s approach to engaging with the international community and its effects on recognition

There are international legal standards for the recognition of governments, but the recognition of governments is a political process and each country takes steps to recognize a new government based on its own interests. A strong central government, security and stability concerns, reduction in opium cultivation and production, regional economic projects, and the development of relations with neighboring and regional countries are what Afghanistan considers to be the cause and achievements for interaction with the international community. However, the suspension of girls’ education, women’s work, and the absence of an inclusive government are the problems that have closed the doors to the official recognition of the Islamic Emirate and are turning the international community away from engaging with the Taliban.

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CONTINUATION OF SANCTIONS ON THE ISLAMIC EMIRATE: LEGAL AND POLITICAL ASSESSMENT

The United States of America should also leave the path of sanctions and bullying. On one hand, it does not affect the Islamic Emirate; on the other hand, this is not a solution for restoring the relationships. Instead, interaction and negotiations are good ways forward for problem solutions.

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